Famous Armenians -- Gary Kasparov

Kasparov, Gary Kimovich (1963- ), chess player and world chess champion, who competes from  Russia on behalf  of ARMENIA . At the age of 22 he became the youngest world chess champion in history. Born Gary Weinstein in Baku, Azerbaijan, in what was then the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), he learned chess from his father, who died when Gary was seven years old. He subsequently adopted his mother's maiden name.

At the age of 12 Kasparov won the Azerbaijan championship and the USSR junior championship, and at the age of 16 he won the world junior championship. In 1980, at the age of 17, he earned the International Grandmaster title. Two years later Kasparov became a candidate for the world championship, and in 1984 he earned the right to challenge the world champion, Russian Anatoly Karpov. Their first match was stopped by Florencio Campomanes of the Philippines, president of the Federation Internationale des Échecs (FIDE), after it had lasted six months without a deciding result. In 1985 Kasparov won a match against Karpov and became the world champion. He defended his title by beating Karpov in 1986, then tied a match with him in 1987 (FIDE rules permit a champion to keep the title if the match ends in a tie). Kasparov beat Karpov a second time to retain his championship in 1990. When Karpov failed to qualify to challenge Kasparov for the world championship in 1993, Kasparov and the British challenger Nigel Short broke away from the FIDE. The two grandmasters held their 1993 championship match under the governance of the Professional Chess Association (PCA). Spurned by Kasparov, the FIDE sanctioned a championship match between Karpov and Dutch grandmaster Jan Timman. Kasparov and Karpov won their respective matches, and both claimed the title of world champion. In 1995 Kasparov retained his PCA title by defeating Indian challenger Viswanathan Anand.

In 1996 Kasparov competed against an International Business Machines (IBM) computer named Deep Blue, the first time a world champion has competed against a computer under standard match conditions. Deep Blue, operated by team of IBM programmers, was capable of processing 50 billion chess positions every three minutes. Applying this massive computational power, a technique of artificial intelligence known as brute force, Deep Blue won the first game of the match to become the first computer to defeat a world champion under regulation time controls. Kasparov subsequently defeated Deep Blue by a score of four games to two to win the match.

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